Rosa Parks (1913–2005)
was an African-American Civil Rights activist who refused to obey bus driver
James F. Blake’s order to give up her seat in the “coloured” section to a white passenger,
after the white section was filled.
Parks’ act of defiance and the Montgomery Bus Boycott became important symbols of
the modern Civil Rights Movement. She became an international icon of
resistance to racial segregation.
The United States Congress calls Parks “the first lady of civil rights” and “the
mother of the freedom movement”.